The present study is among the first to investigate how three foreign language (FL) emotions, namely FL enjoyment (FLE), anxiety (FLCA), and boredom (FLB), are related to each other. It is the first study to consider how the three FL emotions are shaped by one learner-internal variable (attitude toward the FL), by two perceived teacher behaviors (frequency of use of the FL in class and unpredictability), and how all these variables jointly affect leaners’ FL achievement. Participants were 332 FL learners from all over the world studying a wide variety of FLs who filled out an online questionnaire. A close-fitting structural equation model revealed associations between FLE, FLCA, and FLB. Teacher behaviors positively affected FLE, with no discernible effect on FLB or FLCA. Only FLCA was found to have a (negative) effect on academic achievement. The study confirms the complex relationship between teacher behaviors and positive emotions in the FL classroom.
Sources and effects of foreign language enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom: A structural equation modeling approach